In his book, Main Lines: Rebirth of the North American Railroads, 1970-2002, Richard Saunders, Jr. describes the Frisco as being "a system not quite finished." While this may seem an uncharitable description of the Frisco, there is truth to Saunders' statement. The Frisco was always conceived as being a component of a larger system. While the Frisco served as a pawn in the empire-building strategies of its larger neighbors, it also engaged in some empire-building of its own. I have compiled a list of potential mergers and merger partners for the Frisco, as well as explanations as to why these mergers never took place. Out of MoPac, Frisco: While Missouri Pacific is traditionally seen as a rival of the Frisco, MoPac and the Frisco were originally conceived of as a single railroad. The St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad was founded as a subsidiary of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad in 1876, comprised of trackage that previously belonged to Atlantic & Pacific's Missouri and Central Divisions. Atlantic & Pacific was itself founded as a subsidiary of the Pacific Railroad, which later became Missouri Pacific. The Pacific Railroad lost control of the incomplete Atlantic & Pacific after the latter defaulted on its bonds and its property was seized by the state of Missouri. Had this not taken place, it's possible Frisco would've been a component of the Missouri Pacific system instead of a rival. St. Louis, San Francisco & Santa Fe?: As most Frisco fans are undoubtedly aware, the St. Louis & San Francisco was under the control of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe until the Panic of 1893, when both the Frisco and Santa Fe fell into bankruptcy. It was through Santa Fe's control of the Frisco that Santa Fe gained its fabled Transcon route to California and the Frisco was forever denied direct access to its namesake city. Even after Santa Fe lost control of the Frisco, the two railroads interchanged significant amounts of transcontinental traffic with each other. Santa Fe explored the possibility of a merger with the Frisco in the early 1960s, though these talks were derailed after Missouri Pacific attempted a hostile takeover of the Santa Fe and Union Pacific and Southern Pacific began pursuing the Rock Island. Santa Fe initially opposed Burlington Northern's acquisition of the Frisco but settled for haulage rights over the Frisco from Avard to Birmingham. The Frisco and Santa Fe became a single system once again when Burlington Northern and Santa Fe merged with each other in 1995. Today, the Frisco serves as the eastern extension of BNSF's Transcon, an outcome which may have taken place a century earlier had Santa Fe remained in control of the Frisco. Dead-ends with B.F. Yoakum and the Reid-Moore Syndicate: After Santa Fe lost control of the Frisco during the Panic of 1893, the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway came under the control of Benjamin F. Yoakum. Yoakum eventually joined forces with Daniel G. Reed and William H. Moore of the Rock Island. Together, they assembled a system comprised of the Frisco, Rock Island, Gulf Coast Lines and Chicago & Eastern Illinois. The Frisco and Rock Island fit together like puzzle pieces, with each system filling the gaps of the other. Unfortunately, this empire was short-lived, as the Frisco, Rock Island and C&EI all fell into bankruptcy shortly before the First World War. The Frisco later attempted to regain control of the Rock Island, purchasing fifteen percent of its stock in 1929, but sold it shortly after declaring bankruptcy in 1933. Later, John W. Ingram sought the inclusion of the bankrupt Rock Island in the Burlington Northern system alongside the Frisco, but Lou Menk refused Ingram's proposal in light of the fact doing so would make Henry Crown Burlington Northern's largest shareholder. Chicago & Eastern Illinois and the Gulf Coast Lines both ended up in the hands of rival Missouri Pacific, while the Rock Island was carved up amongst its neighbors after its liquidation in 1980. No help from Miss Katy: B.F. Yoakum was close personal friends with Edwin Hawley, owner of the Minneapolis & St. Louis and Missouri, Kansas & Texas railroads. Yoakum viewed the Katy as a natural extension of Frisco: a Frisco-Katy merger would've granted the Frisco a more direct route from Kansas City to Dallas and Fort Worth and direct access to the Gulf Coast. Katy and Frisco already shared trackage in a number of locations and the two railroads would later operate the fabled Texas Special together. The relationship between the Frisco and Katy never went beyond this, though the Katy was one of a handful of railroads that opposed Burlington Northern's acquisition of the Frisco. Jerry Grinstein later stated Burlington Northern made a mistake in allowing Union Pacific to sweep up the Katy instead of buying it alongside the Frisco, as doing so would've granted Burlington Northern access to a number of power plants in Texas and Oklahoma that relied on coal from the Powder River Basin and allowed for greater access to the Gulf Coast petrochemical industry. The Central of Georgia Folly: The Frisco is arguably one of the railroads responsible for kicking off the modern "merger movement" as we know it. Shortly after Louisville & Nashville absorbed the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, the Frisco applied with the Interstate Commerce Commission for permission to control the Central of Georgia. While the Interstate Commerce Commission was initially favorable to the Frisco's request, they soon discovered the Frisco had begun acquiring Central of Georgia stock before they had applied for permission. Thus, the ICC denied the Frisco's request and forced the Frisco to divest its holdings in the Central. The Frisco sold its stock to the Southern, who promptly went and absorbed the Central. In hindsight, this was probably for the best, as the Central of Georgia served areas of the South that were largely untouched by the Sunbelt boom of the 1960s and the Frisco would've alienated the Southern and Seaboard Coast Line had it invaded their territory. After ending its merger talks with Missouri Pacific in the mid-1970s, the Southern considered a merger with the Frisco but soon abandoned that idea in favor of pursuing Illinois Central Gulf. The Southern would eventually merge with Norfolk & Western in 1982, forming today's Norfolk Southern.